Difference between soap and detergent as cleaning agents

Difference between soap and detergent

Introduction Soap and detergent both are cleaning agents that are essential for removing dirt, any contaminants that cannot be removed only with water. They are used for mostly household things like cleaning clothes, dishwashing, mopping floors etc. and used as skin cleaners and important for hand washing. following is the article on the difference between … Read more



Introduction Definition of Disaccharides is a compound that consists of two units of monosaccharides like glucose, fructose, galactose, and mannose.  Disaccharides are generally formed in plants and they can be separated from plant material.  Formation of disaccharides Condensation reaction and glycosidic bond formation In the presence of acid, a glycosidic bond is formed between two … Read more

Osmosis: Definition, importance, and mechanism


Introduction Definition Osmosis is the net diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution when the two are separated by means of a semi-permeable membrane. Basic Explanation When the two solvents having different osmotic concentrations are separated by the means of a semi-permeable membrane, they move from a region of higher … Read more

Enzyme immunoassays

enzyme immunoassays

Know in one minute about Enzyme immunoassay Enzyme immunoassay is an important technique for the detection of proteins, hormones, peptides, etc. EIA determines the sample by using enzyme-linked antibodies. Horseradish Peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase is used for labeling antigens or antibodies because they have chromogenic substrates. Enzyme immunoassay performs both qualitative and quantitative tests. We can … Read more

What is an EcoRI restriction enzyme?

EcoRI restriction enzyme

Know in one minute about EcoRI Restriction Enzyme EcoRI Restriction Enzyme is a type II restriction endonuclease. It was derived from the bacteria Escherichia coli RY13. It is the first enzyme to have been derived. The recognition sequence of this enzyme discovered in 1972 is 5′-GAATTC-3′. It consists of four nucleotide bases namely guanine, adenine, … Read more

Primary Structure of Proteins and their function

Primary structure of protein

Introduction Protein is an essential part of our diet, consisting of long chains of amino acids called polypeptides. It plays a crucial role in building, maintaining, regulating, and repairing body tissue, and can be found in many different types of food. When we consume protein, our body breaks it down into individual amino acids during … Read more

Radioimmunoassay: Define with simple diagrams


Know in one minute about Radioimmunoassay Radioimmunoassay is used to determine the concentration of Ag present in the patient sample. It utilizes the radioactive isotopes to label antigens. Two types of RIA were found first is double antibody RIA and second is coated tube RIA. RIA technique based on the competition binding of labeled Ag … Read more

Enantiomers vs diastereomers: Differenciate

enantiomers vs diastereomers

Introduction The following topic is about enantiomers vs diastereomers and their definition and structure with a simple basic difference. Enantiomers and diastereomers are both optically active except for geometrical isomers. Enantiomers are separated by chromatography and diastereomers are separated by fractional distillation or crystallization. What are enantiomers  Definition Optical isomers which are non-superimposable mirror images … Read more

Chemiosmotic hypothesis 

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

Know in one minute about the Chemiosmotic hypothesis The chemiosmotic hypothesis explains the mechanism of ATP Synthesis by a proton gradient. Lumen has low pH due to high proton concentration. And the other side will have lower concentrations. Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmotic hypothesis both are the mechanism of ATP Synthesis. In oxidative phosphorylation for the … Read more