Dark Field Microscope

Dark Field Microscope

Introduction What is dark field microscopy? Dark field microscopy is a light microscopic technique, used to observe living cells and microorganisms without staining methods. This method involves illumination of samples from the side, rather than the front view. This technique is generally used to carefully study microscopic organisms like bacteria and protozoans. A special condenser

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Plant breeding

What is plant breeding and what are the techniques?

Introduction Breeding is the way of producing offspring through sexual reproduction. However, plant breeding is a biotechnological process that occurs with the intervention of humans. The primary motive of plant breeding is to produce crops with better quality and quantity.   The continuous growth of the population made scientists think about alternate ways of quality food

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Cytoplasmic inheritance

Cytoplasmic inheritance

Introduction Cytoplasmic inheritance or maternal inheritance is simply the transfer of genetic characters through the cytoplasm (that is other organelle DNA) instead of the nucleus. In a cytoplasm, autonomous organelles like mitochondria and plastids are present as the genetic matter that is considered the key ingredients. Mitochondria, usually referred to as the powerhouse of the

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Osmosis: Definition, importance, and mechanism

Introduction Definition Osmosis is the net diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution when the two are separated by means of a semi-permeable membrane. Basic Explanation When the two solvents having different osmotic concentrations are separated by the means of a semi-permeable membrane, they move from a region of higher

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Role of vascular cambium in plant growth and development

Introduction Vascular cambium is the main form of tissue development in angiosperms and gymnosperms like Pine. The vascular system is composed of the xylem and phloem. It has two types, primary and secondary. The primary xylem and phloem construct the primary tissues. The vascular cambium gives rise to the secondary xylem and phloem. This is

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Enzyme activity

Enzyme activity: Definition, types and factors

Enzymes: An introduction Enzymes are biological catalysts that help in speeding up a chemical reaction without altering itself. All the enzymes are protein in nature except some small groups of RNA molecules called ribozymes. They are produced by the living cells of plants and animals. All the enzymes are colloidal in nature that is they

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