What is plant breeding and what are the techniques?

Plant breeding

Introduction Breeding is the way of producing offspring through sexual reproduction. However, plant breeding is a biotechnological process that occurs with the intervention of humans. The primary motive of plant breeding is to produce crops with better quality and quantity.   The continuous growth of the population made scientists think about alternate ways of quality food … Read more

Cross pollination vs self pollination

Cross pollination

Introduction Pollination is the procedure of transfer of pollen from an anther of a plant to the stigma of the same or the other plant. This transfer can occur in several ways. Sometimes by wind, sometimes by water and by insects also. Successful pollination leads to fertilization and the formation of seeds. (1). This article … Read more

Cytoplasmic inheritance

Cytoplasmic inheritance

Introduction Cytoplasmic inheritance or maternal inheritance is simply the transfer of genetic characters through the cytoplasm (that is other organelle DNA) instead of the nucleus. In a cytoplasm, autonomous organelles like mitochondria and plastids are present as the genetic matter that is considered the key ingredients. Mitochondria, usually referred to as the powerhouse of the … Read more

Osmosis: Definition, importance, and mechanism


Introduction Definition Osmosis is the net diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution when the two are separated by means of a semi-permeable membrane. Basic Explanation When the two solvents having different osmotic concentrations are separated by the means of a semi-permeable membrane, they move from a region of higher … Read more

Role of vascular cambium in plant growth and development


Introduction Vascular cambium is the main form of tissue development in angiosperms and gymnosperms like Pine. The vascular system is composed of the xylem and phloem. It has two types, primary and secondary. The primary xylem and phloem construct the primary tissues. The vascular cambium gives rise to the secondary xylem and phloem. This is … Read more

Classification of life: The three major domains

Classification of life

Know in one minute about the Classification of life The classification of life is mainly based on basis of their similarities and dissimilarities or according to their natural relationship to each other. Carolus Linnaeus also known as the “Father of Taxonomy” was the pioneer in the work of classification. He was the first to suggest … Read more

Cytosol: Definition and Function


Know in one minute about cytosol Cytosol is the semi-fluid or aqueous component of a cell. It is present within the cytoplasm occupying the space between the nuclear envelope and plasma membrane. Found in all types of cells. Comprises about 20-25% of the total protein content of the cell, and contains soluble proteins and enzymes. … Read more

Vertebrates Vs  Invertebrates

Vertebrates Vs  Invertebrates

 Know in one minute about Vertebrates Vs  Invertebrates Vertebrates Vs  Invertebrates are two major categories of animals based on the presence or absence of a backbone or spinal column Vertebrates are animals with a backbone or spinal column, exhibiting bilateral symmetry, having an endoskeleton made of bone or cartilage, and typically possessing a complex nervous … Read more

Endoplasmic reticulum: Structure and Function

Endoplasmic reticulum

Know in one minute about the Endoplasmic reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of closely interconnected fine membranes found in the cytoplasm of the cell in the form of vesicles and tubules. It consists of three types of structure namely vesicles, cisternae, and tubules. Vesicles are round oval shaped and the cisternae are long, … Read more