What is plant breeding and what are the techniques?

Plant breeding

Introduction Breeding is the way of producing offspring through sexual reproduction. However, plant breeding is a biotechnological process that occurs with the intervention of humans. The primary motive of plant breeding is to produce crops with better quality and quantity.   The continuous growth of the population made scientists think about alternate ways of quality food … Read more

Cross pollination vs self pollination

Cross pollination

Introduction Pollination is the procedure of transfer of pollen from an anther of a plant to the stigma of the same or the other plant. This transfer can occur in several ways. Sometimes by wind, sometimes by water and by insects also. Successful pollination leads to fertilization and the formation of seeds. (1). This article … Read more

Molecular Clock

molecular clock

Introduction  A molecular clock is a concept used to estimate the genetic divergences between species. It helps to analyze the mutation rates in DNA sequences and to find a common ancestor in them. It is used to study the history of human evolution and to find the connecting link between plants and animals.  The molecular … Read more

Cytoplasmic inheritance

Cytoplasmic inheritance

Introduction Cytoplasmic inheritance or maternal inheritance is simply the transfer of genetic characters through the cytoplasm (that is other organelle DNA) instead of the nucleus. In a cytoplasm, autonomous organelles like mitochondria and plastids are present as the genetic matter that is considered the key ingredients. Mitochondria, usually referred to as the powerhouse of the … Read more

Explain Gregor Mendel pea plant experiment

Gregor mendel pea plant

Introduction Gregor Johann Mendel was a 19th-century Austrian abbot who was also a biologist and mathematician. He started his experiments regarding the pattern of inheritance in 1856. Primarily, he started with mice. However, he later switched to honeybees and garden peas. In the end, garden peas became the primary model for his experiments. Hence, this … Read more

Non-Mendelian Inheritance

Introduction Gregor Mendel achieved a breakthrough with his experiments in the field of Genetics. However, he generally worked on a controlled setup. His laws applied to many of the plants. But, after replacing the pea plants with Arabidopsis thaliana or Zea mays, scientists found that they were not following Mendel’s laws. This inconsistency was assessed … Read more