Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis

Introduction Reverse Osmosis is a membrane-based demineralized technique that is used to separate the dissolved solids such as ions from the solution. The membranes act as selectively permeable barriers that allow selective elements to pass through them. RO method helps in eliminating the dissolved solids as well as the suspended solids. Osmosis is a process

Reverse osmosis Read More »

Hybridoma technology

Hybridoma technology

Introduction When two non-identical cells are brought into close contact and their membranes are allowed to fuse, the resulting product contains both nuclei. The fusion can occur between cells of the same species or of different species. A cell with two or more dissimilar nuclei is called a heterokaryon and their fusion results in a

Hybridoma technology Read More »

pUC19 Vector

pUC19 Vector

Introduction Vectors and their importance Vectors are the major component required to make an rDNA molecule for gene cloning. They act as a vehicle for carrying foreign DNA into a host cell for multiplication. Generally, small circular-shaped DNA molecules of bacterial origin are used as cloning vectors. About pUC19 Vector pUC 19 vectors belong to

pUC19 Vector Read More »

Genetic Codons

Genetic Codons

Introduction What are genetic codons? Genetic codons are sequences of three nucleotides that form the genetic code. The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is specified by a sequence of elementary codons within a gene. These elementary coding units are called codons. They are mostly triplets consisting of adjacent nucleotides, used in the synthesis

Genetic Codons Read More »



About interferons Interferons are dominant inducible effector molecules that are produced by all nucleated animal cells. They are responsible for the modification of basic biochemical processes in a reversible fashion. It thus plays an important role in the proper functioning of the organisms and also contributes to the prevention and treatment of diseases. Discovery Isaac

Interferons Read More »

Microscope parts labelled

Different Microscope parts labelled

Introduction A microscope magnifies and reveals fine details. This article is about different Microscope parts with labelled name and their functions, elucidating the instrument’s role in the scientific exploration and observation of minuscule structures. Tasks that a microscope performs It should be able to produce a magnified image of the specimen. Better resolution Better contrast

Different Microscope parts labelled Read More »


Antisera: Harnessing the power of antibodies

Introduction Definition  Antisera is defined as a serum present in our blood that contains monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies that provide passive immunization to our body.  Importance in medicine Antibodies have many applications in diagnosis therapy and research. All antibodies were produced by inoculating antigens into the animals and taking serum.  Role of antibodies in the

Antisera: Harnessing the power of antibodies Read More »

HindIII restriction enzyme

HindIII restriction enzyme: The molecular scissors

Introduction HindIII restriction enzyme is a molecular scissors that helps in cleaving DNA molecules. The term genetic engineering is a technique for modifying organisms through heredity and reproduction. It includes a wide range of biomedical techniques such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and gene manipulation.  Restriction endonucleases come under nucleases. They are molecular scissors

HindIII restriction enzyme: The molecular scissors Read More »

types of restriction enzymes

What are the different types of restriction enzymes ? 

Introduction Different types of restriction enzymes are present in the molecular biology world. Restriction enzymes come under the class of nucleases. They are termed molecular scissors for manipulating DNA.  Hence, these restriction endonucleases are responsible for cutting DNA at specific target sites known as recognition sites.  Classification of restriction enzymes based on recognition sites Restriction

What are the different types of restriction enzymes ?  Read More »

Scroll to Top