Bright Field Microscope

Introduction A bright field microscope can be said to be an optical microscope that uses light to illuminate an object. Another name for a bright field microscope is a Compound microscope. They are highly used in the areas of research, education, and industrial purposes. The compound microscopes are used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of … Read more

Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Treatment

Introduction Wastewater, also termed sewage, is basically water by weight. It is basically of three types domestic sewage, industrial sewage, and sewage from precipitation. This article is about wastewater treatment and procedures and types. The contaminants that can be found in wastewater include suspended solids particles, biodegradable dissolved organic matter, inorganic solids wastes, nutrients, metals, … Read more

What is fermenter?

What is fermenter?

Introduction The fermenters are highly used for food processing, fermentation, waste treatment etc. This article is all about  What is Fermenter and its types and uses. In general word, a fermentor is a type of closed vessel used for microorganisms’ growth under sterilized conditions for the production of metabolites.  An ideal fermentor should provide: Agitation … Read more

 Quadrant streaking

Quadrant streaking

Introduction Quadrant streaking is a highly used method by biologists to obtain a pure culture by the inoculation of certain microorganisms. Here, the agar plate is quadrantal streaked i.e., divided into four equal sections. Hence, it is also called the 4 Quadrant Streak. Streaking is done to obtain a pure culture and identification of microorganisms.  … Read more

Bunsen burner: definition and its parts with function

Bunsen burner

Know in one minute about the Bunsen burner The Bunsen burner is a high-temperature heating device. Widely used in laboratories all over the world for its required heat, stability, and smokeless flame. It was discovered in 1857 by Robert Bunsen and his assistant. Used for various purposes, such as heating, sterilization, combustion, etc. Bunsen burner … Read more

What is serial dilution method? And how to calculate?

serial dilution method

Introduction Serial dilution is a microbiological process where a substance is stepwise diluted in a solution. This serial dilution method is a technological method that is used in the isolation of microorganisms. There are two types of dilution. Simple dilution Serial dilution. Below is a discussion of what the serial dilution method is and how … Read more

What is prokaryotic DNA

Prokaryotic DNA

Know in one minute about prokaryotic DNA   The prokaryotic DNA found in the cytoplasm is usually circular and present in fewer amounts. It is naked without histone protein. It exists as single chromosome  Apart from that additional plasmid DNA is also present. The compact mass of DNA is called the nucleoid. Non-coding introns absent with … Read more

Electron microscope: Definition and types

Electron microscope

Introduction Microscopy helps us to understand or gives access to see the direct images of various tissues, organisms, organelles, microorganisms, molecular assemblies, and proteins. It is an important, complementary technique to visualize the macro and/or microscopic structure and to assign structure to function and vice versa.  The discovery of an electron microscope was not sudden, … Read more

Scanning electron microscope (SEM): Structure and description

Scanning electron microscope

Introduction A microscope is used to see objects that are not visible to the naked eye. The electron microscope is a breakthrough invention in microbiology. It is of two types based on its structure such as transmission electron microscope and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). This microscope accurately describes the smallest part of an object. After … Read more