Cross pollination vs self pollination

Cross pollination

Introduction Pollination is the procedure of transfer of pollen from an anther of a plant to the stigma of the same or the other plant. This transfer can occur in several ways. Sometimes by wind, sometimes by water and by insects also. Successful pollination leads to fertilization and the formation of seeds. (1). This article … Read more

Explain Gregor Mendel pea plant experiment

Gregor mendel pea plant

Introduction Gregor Johann Mendel was a 19th-century Austrian abbot who was also a biologist and mathematician. He started his experiments regarding the pattern of inheritance in 1856. Primarily, he started with mice. However, he later switched to honeybees and garden peas. In the end, garden peas became the primary model for his experiments. Hence, this … Read more

Role of vascular cambium in plant growth and development


Introduction Vascular cambium is the main form of tissue development in angiosperms and gymnosperms like Pine. The vascular system is composed of the xylem and phloem. It has two types, primary and secondary. The primary xylem and phloem construct the primary tissues. The vascular cambium gives rise to the secondary xylem and phloem. This is … Read more

Exploring the life cycle of gymnosperm


Introduction The gymnosperm (naked seed-bearing vascular plants) ‘Gymnos’ and ‘Sperma’ in Greek means naked and seed. As the name suggests, the ovules remain exposed, both before and after the completion of fertilization. Gymnosperms are mostly woody (in some cases shrubby) in nature, having roots, shoots, and leaves. The root system is generally like dicots (tap … Read more

Define light dependent reactions

Light dependent reactions

Know in one minute about light-dependent reactions Light-dependent reactions produced ATP and NADP + H, in the presence of light. Take place on the grana of the chloroplast. In the membrane of thylakoid PS-I and PS-II is present. This photosystem is a light-harvesting complex, consisting of a reaction center. Light harvesting complexes contain chlorophyll and … Read more

Primary metabolites vs secondary metabolites

Primary metabolites vs secondary metabolites

Primary metabolites Primary metabolites like carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, and proteins can be found in all plants. They are responsible for basic physiological functions. Are indispensable for the life of each plant. In short, the primary metabolites are the building blocks of the body of the plants. The following article is about primary metabolites and … Read more

What is a photosystem?

What is a photosystem

Let us get a better understanding of what is a photosystem and how they are so important for plants and other organisms. show the organisms on Earth rely on photosystems for survival. Discover their structure and function in this guide! Definition Photosystems are the protein complex that is essential for photosynthesis. They are structural and … Read more

What is G3P or Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate?


Know in one minute about G3P or Glyceraldehyde – 3 – phosphate G3P is an important intermediate in respiration and photosynthesis. Also called triose phosphate. It is a 3-carbon sugar molecule. Consists of 3-carbon, one side phosphate group attached and the other side aldehyde group attached. Is an aldotriose that plays important role in glycolysis, … Read more

What are Tissue culture plants?

Tissue culture plants

Know in one minute about tissue culture plants Tissue culture plants are obtained by in vitro aseptic culture of cells, tissues, organs, or whole plants under controlled conditions. These conditions comprise of appropriate supply of nutrients, pH medium, and adequate temperature. These plants are more efficient and more improved thus producing good results in terms … Read more