C value paradox

C value paradox

Know in one minute about C value paradox The c value paradox is the developing form of C value. C value is considered as the number of DNA base pairs present in the haploid set of the genome. C value phenomenon is the Complexity of an organism that is increased if the number of DNA … Read more

What is bioaugmentation?


Know in one minute about Bioaugmentation Bioaugmentation is a process in which specialized microorganisms are added to perform biodegradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants (present in soil and groundwater).  It is designed to reduce the contamination level. Increases the active microbes and microorganisms level in the treatment environment.  The contaminants are transformed into less harmful substances … Read more

What is G3P or Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate?


Know in one minute about G3P or Glyceraldehyde – 3 – phosphate G3P is an important intermediate in respiration and photosynthesis. Also called triose phosphate. It is a 3-carbon sugar molecule. Consists of 3-carbon, one side phosphate group attached and the other side aldehyde group attached. Is an aldotriose that plays important role in glycolysis, … Read more

What is prokaryotic DNA

Prokaryotic DNA

Know in one minute about prokaryotic DNA   The prokaryotic DNA found in the cytoplasm is usually circular and present in fewer amounts. It is naked without histone protein. It exists as single chromosome  Apart from that additional plasmid DNA is also present. The compact mass of DNA is called the nucleoid. Non-coding introns absent with … Read more

Synthesis of cDNA and cDNA library

Synthesis of cDNA

 Introduction In genetics, cDNA is called complementary DNA. The synthetic DNA has been transcribed from a specific mRNA (messenger RNA) or miRNA (micro RNA) through a reaction using the enzyme reverse transcriptase that is how the synthesis of cDNA takes place. The basic difference between cDNA and genomic DNA is that they lack introns or … Read more

What is histone?


Know in one minute about histone Histones are positively charged basic proteins. They are found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells responsible for DNA folding and chromatin formation. Hence, they are important for the formation of nucleosomes. The core particle is octamer. These proteins are rich in positively charged amino acids such as lysine and … Read more

What are Tissue culture plants?

Tissue culture plants

Know in one minute about tissue culture plants Tissue culture plants are obtained by in vitro aseptic culture of cells, tissues, organs, or whole plants under controlled conditions. These conditions comprise of appropriate supply of nutrients, pH medium, and adequate temperature. These plants are more efficient and more improved thus producing good results in terms … Read more

Glycosidic bond definition and structure

Glycosidic bond

Know in one minute about glycosidic bond A Glycosidic bond is a bond that joins one carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another, which may or may not be a carbohydrate molecule It is a type of covalent bond. Formed between anomeric carbon and alkoxy oxygen of sugar molecules. When two or more sugar molecules (monosaccharides) are … Read more

What is histone acetylation ?

Histone acetylation

Histone acetylation: Know in one minute Histone acetylation is the introduction of an acetyl group to the amino acid lysine which is present in the histone tail. Whereas histone deacetylation is the removal of the acetyl group. This process is done by two main enzymes                    a. … Read more

N-terminus and C-terminus in protein

N terminus and c terminus in protein

Introduction The Carboxyl group (-COOH) of one amino acid is attached to the amino group of another amino acid by a covalent bond called a peptide bond. When a peptide bond forms a water molecule is eliminated. Each amino acid unit in the peptide is known as the residue. All peptides have two ends, amino-terminal … Read more