What is plant breeding and what are the techniques?

Plant breeding

Introduction Breeding is the way of producing offspring through sexual reproduction. However, plant breeding is a biotechnological process that occurs with the intervention of humans. The primary motive of plant breeding is to produce crops with better quality and quantity.   The continuous growth of the population made scientists think about alternate ways of quality food … Read more

Cross pollination vs self pollination

Cross pollination

Introduction Pollination is the procedure of transfer of pollen from an anther of a plant to the stigma of the same or the other plant. This transfer can occur in several ways. Sometimes by wind, sometimes by water and by insects also. Successful pollination leads to fertilization and the formation of seeds. (1). This article … Read more

Fault lines of the United States

Introduction A fault line, also known simply as a fault, is a geological fracture in the Earth’s crust where two blocks of the Earth’s lithosphere (the rigid outer layer of the Earth) have moved relative to each other. These movements can be horizontal, vertical, or a combination of both. Faults are typically caused by tectonic … Read more

What is karst topography?

karst topography

Introduction Underground water does a three-fold action of erosion, transportation, and deposition like all other agents of change. A limestone area where underground water is more effective is known as ‘karst’ topography. It is named after a province of Yugoslavia. Karst formation process There are various physical, and chemical processes that take place while forming … Read more

What is sinking creek?

Sinking Creek

Introduction In a valley, the water often gets lost through cracks and fissures in the bed. These are known as sinking creek and if their tops are open, they are called bogas. What is sinking creek? It is an erosional landform of karst topography. The surface of the karst plain looks like a sieve because … Read more

What is Sterling Silver 925?

is Sterling Silver 925

Introduction Silver is not only used for making jewelry but also is required for many industrial purposes like batteries, dentistry, nuclear reactors to photography (1). However, the pure form of silver is very soft as well as expensive and can not fulfill the demands of the growing industries. Thus, alloys of silver are widely used … Read more

Soil salinization: Causes, effects and mitigation strategies

Soil salinization

Introduction Soil is a dynamic natural body developed as a result of pedogenic processes during and after the weathering of rocks, consisting of minerals and organic constituents, possessing definite chemical, physical, mineralogical, and biological properties, having a variable depth over the surface of the earth and providing a medium for plant growth for land plants. … Read more

Difference between Polyp Vs Medusa 

Polyp vs medusa

Introduction Cnidarians inhibit all regions of the world’s ocean and some freshwater environments. They are an integral part of the marine ecosystem. The habitats of cnidarians vary greatly on whether they take on predominantly polyp body forms or medusa body forms. In this topic, we will know in detail about polyp vs medusa forms. About … Read more

 Quadrant streaking

Quadrant streaking

Introduction Quadrant streaking is a highly used method by biologists to obtain a pure culture by the inoculation of certain microorganisms. Here, the agar plate is quadrantal streaked i.e., divided into four equal sections. Hence, it is also called the 4 Quadrant Streak. Streaking is done to obtain a pure culture and identification of microorganisms.  … Read more

Antisera: Harnessing the power of antibodies


Introduction Definition  Antisera is defined as a serum present in our blood that contains monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies that provide passive immunization to our body.  Importance in medicine Antibodies have many applications in diagnosis therapy and research. All antibodies were produced by inoculating antigens into the animals and taking serum.  Role of antibodies in the … Read more