Molecular Clock

molecular clock

Introduction  A molecular clock is a concept used to estimate the genetic divergences between species. It helps to analyze the mutation rates in DNA sequences and to find a common ancestor in them. It is used to study the history of human evolution and to find the connecting link between plants and animals.  The molecular … Read more

Pancreatic enzymes

Pancreatic enzymes

Introduction The pancreas, also called a mixed gland, plays an important role in digestion. The enzymes secreted by the pancreas are called pancreatic enzymes to break down foods. It includes amylopsin, trypsin, and steapsin. The pancreatic enzymes are stored in the form of zymogen granules. Enzymes are active proteins and the final form of biocatalysts. … Read more

Soli pH test: Methods and Procedures

soli pH test

Introduction Soil pH tells us whether the soil is acidic, neutral, or alkaline depending upon the hydrogen ions present in it and this is done by soil pH test. It is an important parameter that influences different soil factors, affecting plant growth. The soil pH test helps us to determine the pH acidity or alkaline … Read more

Acid soil: Causes, impact, and remediation

Acid soil

Introduction Soil acidity is the result of excessive accumulation of H+ ions (Hydrogen) over OH– ions (Hydroxide) in the soil solution. Hence acid soil or acidic soil is rich in H+ In other words, acidity means a low percentage of base saturation. It happens when precipitation exceeds the evapotranspiration. Thus here, the leaching is prominent, … Read more

Innate Immunity: The first line of defence

Innate Immunity

Introduction The word Innate means something that has been present since the birth. Hence innate immunity is the first line of defence that our body has from foreign elements. This type of immunity is non-specific in nature that is it acts against a vast array of microorganisms, fungi and bacteria. In other words, we can … Read more

HindIII restriction enzyme: The molecular scissors

HindIII restriction enzyme

Introduction HindIII restriction enzyme is a molecular scissors that helps in cleaving DNA molecules. The term genetic engineering is a technique for modifying organisms through heredity and reproduction. It includes a wide range of biomedical techniques such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and gene manipulation.  Restriction endonucleases come under nucleases. They are molecular scissors … Read more

What are the different types of restriction enzymes ? 

types of restriction enzymes

Introduction Different types of restriction enzymes are present in the molecular biology world. Restriction enzymes come under the class of nucleases. They are termed molecular scissors for manipulating DNA.  Hence, these restriction endonucleases are responsible for cutting DNA at specific target sites known as recognition sites.  Classification of restriction enzymes based on recognition sites Restriction … Read more

Tautomerization: A phenomenon of Molecular transformation


Know in one minute about tautomerization Tautomerism is the process in which a single compound exists in two interconvertible structures that differ in the relative position of at least one hydrogen atom. The two different structures are known as tautomers of each other. Tautomerism is also known as dynamic isomerism as the two forms of … Read more

Costal features: Types and formation

Introduction Coastal features are of various types of physical features situated along the coastline or shoreline of a sea or ocean. Coastal landforms are the result of dynamic interaction of processes like erosion, deposition, and other geological agents. They are formed either by the deposition of sediments along the coastline, forming depositional features, or the … Read more

Depositional Landforms

Depositional Landforms

Know in one minute about Depositional Landforms Depositional landforms are geological features formed by the deposition of sediments like sand, silt, and clay carried by natural agents like water, ice, wind, etc. Depositional landforms can be of various types such as fluvial, glacial, aeolian, etc. They support a variety of biodiversity and provide habitat for … Read more