What are the Biotic factors in the amazon rainforest?

Know in one minute about Biotic factors in the amazon rainforest

  • The Amazon rainforest is the world’s largest forest.
  • It is home to more than half of the world’s vegetation. There are approximately 330 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species.
  • About 20% of the earth’s oxygen comes from the amazon.
  • The Amazon rainforest is one of the seven natural wonders of the world.
  • This rainforest has 4.5 million species of insects, 428 types of amphibians, 37 species of reptiles, and 427 species of mammals.
  • There are 3000 species of fish and aquatic animals in the Amazon River.
  • Although the Amazon is called a ‘rainforest’, it does not mean that it rains all year round. Rather, it is called a rainforest because of climatic conditions (the high humidity, rainfall, and hot weather).
  • The climatic environment of this rainforest is one of the reasons for the diverse assemblage of plant and animal (biotic factors) species here.
  • It is one of the world’s largest tropical rainforests. Global climate is regulated by this rainforest (1) & (4).


Biotic factors are living components that shape the environment through their activities. In the Amazon rainforest, plant and animal species, fungi, bacteria, and microorganisms are among the biotic factors that make it distinct from other tropical rainforests. Their presence and interactions create a unique ecosystem in which each species plays a vital role. These biotic factors are essential for the survival of the Amazon rainforest and are responsible for its diverse array of life forms.

The Amazon rainforest has a stable balance between biotic and abiotic factors, supporting a rich and diverse ecosystem. With over 16,000 plant species and millions of animal, microorganism, bacteria, and fungi species, the Amazon rainforest is one of the biggest biotic factors in the region, and new species are still being discovered.

Different species of aquatic animals can be observed not only in the rainforest but also in the Amazon River. They also help to form the amazon rainforest as biotic factors. All these biotic factors play a role to form the rainforest ecosystem. Below is a discussion of all the biotic factors in the amazon rainforest (1).

About the amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest is an evergreen tropical forest. The wide part of South America is covered by the Amazon rain forest about more than two million square miles. More than half of this rainforest is located in Brazil. The rainforest also extends west into Peru and Ecuador, northern parts of Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyana, and south into Bolivia (2).

Some interesting facts about the amazon rainforest

  • The Amazon rainforest is the largest tropical rainforest located in the Amazon River basin in South America.
  • It is extremely inaccessible.
  • Is the world’s largest evergreen forest.
  • Scientists have found a river under the Amazon River, whose name is Hamza.
  • These rainforests cover an area of about 7 million square kilometers in 9 countries.
  • In terms of size, the Amazon rainforest is 38 times bigger than Bangladesh.
  • Amazon is half of all the rainforests in the world.
  • This rainforest was named Amazon by Francisco de Orellana.
  • The Amazon rainforest is full of biodiversity.
  • This rainforest crosses many countries. The biggest part is Brazil. It covers about half of Brazil.
  • The Amazon rainforest covers 1.4 billion acres.
  • Amazon rainforest is a living museum (2) & (4).

How it is different from other rainforests

The Amazon rainforest is the largest tropical rainforest. All of the world’s rainforests are rich in biodiversity. But among them, the highest biodiversity can be observed in the amazon forest. About 20% of the earth’s oxygen comes from the amazon. For this reason, it is called the lungs of the earth.

The Amazon River in this rainforest is the source of most of the rivers. This river supplies a lot of water to the world. The Amazon rainforest is home to rare species of animals and people that cannot be seen anywhere else. There are more plants and animals living in the Amazon rainforest than in any other habitat, and many of them aren’t seen anywhere on the planet. For all these reasons it is different from other rainforests (2).

Biotic factors

In the discussion of ecology, the components of an environment that are derived from living organisms or due to biological activity are called biotic factors. Biotic factors together with abiotic factors play an important role in ecosystem formation.

Types of plant species, animal species, fungi, bacteria, insects, mammals, reptiles, bacteria, and other small microorganisms are the biotic factors in the amazon rainforests (1).

Biotic factors in the amazon rain forest

Biotic factors in the amazon rainforest are

1. Plant species

The Amazon rainforest is known as the lungs of the earth because it produces 20% of the world’s oxygen. It contains about 3900 million trees of 40,000 species, with evergreen vegetation due to high humidity and rainfall. The region’s extreme temperatures and evaporation create a favorable climate for plant growth.

Orchids, lilies, bromeliads, cat’s claw, Para rubber tree, Brazil nut, various flowers, herbs, woody vines, lichens, mosses, some plants such as rosewood, ironwood, mahogany, banana trees, rubber trees, bamboo trees, cassava, avocado, kapok trees, epiphyte, lobster-claws, cacao, palms, bougainvillea, pitcher plants, etc. are found in this region.

Victoria’s Amazonia is only found in the Amazon rainforest. Mahogany, figs, Spanish cedars, laurels, etc. are mainly found in the Amazon River basin. The plants of the Amazon rainforest play a great role in the environment. They influence water cycles by releasing 20 billion tons of water into the air every day (2).

Some interesting characteristics of these plants are

  • Rainforest plants grow faster. They grow about 2 meters in a few days.
  • The tree’s leaves are quite large. As an example, the Coccoloba gigantifolia, a tree species from the Brazilian amazon with gigantic leaves that can reach 2.5 meters in length.
  • Some plants are very tall. Like Angelim vermelho, which is 290 feet tall hence is called the giant tree.
  • The plant species of this region are divided into four layers. These are the emergent layer, canopy layer, understory layer, and forest floor layer.
  • A variety of carnivorous plants can be observed here such as the Venus fly trap.
  • Different species of mediational plants are found in the amazon rainforest such as cat’s claw, cinchona, jaborandi, curare, etc. Cat claws are used for arthritis, stomach, and inflammation treatment. Cinchona is a famous mediational plant used to treat malaria.
  • Trees from the Amazon rainforest form a canopy layer to spread the branches like open umbrellas on top.
  • All the plants in this forest are evergreen in nature i.e. the plants do not shed their leaves throughout the year.
  • Most plants are flexible when they are young (1).

2. Animal species

Interesting facts about animals in the Amazon rainforest

  • The world’s largest biodiversity is found in the Amazon rainforest.
  • There are 425 different species of mammals, 1300 types of birds, 3500 types of fish, around 500 types of reptiles, 400 types of amphibians, and 2.5 million insects present in the amazon rainforest. They are the important biotic factors of this rainforest ecosystem.
  • Some rare animal species are mainly seen in this region such as pink dolphins or boto, poison dart frog, the South American tapir, golden lion tamarin, hyacinth macaw, etc.
  • Spider monkeys, frogs, lizards, birds, snakes, sloths and small cats, scarlet macaws, howler monkeys, macaws, etc. are found in the canopy layer.
  • A type of carnivorous animal called piranha (fish) can be found in the Amazon River.
  • Here about 50 to 00 species of animals can be observed in one hectare of the forest area.
  • Lizards, black caiman, green anacondas, yellow-spotted river turtles, pit vipers, and forest geckos are some noticeable reptiles in the Amazon rainforest.
  • A variety of birds can be observed here such as the macaw, toco toucan, king vulture, hummingbirds, amazon kingfisher, paradise tanager, harpy eagle, etc.
  • Here the mammals are large in size but their bodies are flexible.
  • The number, density, and diversity of animals in these forests increase from the ground level upwards.
  • Animals in the amazon rainforest are skilled in tree climbing. They also adapt themselves to living on the forest floor.
  • Due to the presence of different species of animals in this forest, day and night activity can always be observed among the animals living at different layers in the forest.
  • A gathering of insects can be observed here, such as beetles, mosquitoes, spiders, ants, moths, butterflies, etc. Some of them are bloodthirsty, some are disease carriers, and some only sting (2) & (3).

3. Microorganisms

  • Termites, earthworms, fungi, scorpions, bacteria, and millipedes are some of the microorganisms living in the Amazon rainforest.
  • Some beautiful mushrooms are found in this rainforest such as anemone stinkhorn fungus, red stinkhorn, etc.
  • Acidophilic bacteria, actinomycetes, mycorrhizae, etc. type of bacteria are found in this rainforest.
  • The activity of these microorganisms in the amazon rainforest helps to supply water and nutrients to growing plants.
  • They also help fertilize the forest soil. These microorganisms break down organic matter from plants, and animals and they are also involved with the nitrogen and carbon cycles.
  • All the microorganisms are very active in the Amazon rainforest because the hot and humid climatic conditions help them to grow (2).


1. How many animals in the amazon rainforest?

About 1500 types of bird species, 500 types of mammal species, 600 types of amphibians, and 427 types of reptiles are found in the Amazon rainforest. Various types of species are discovered every year.

2. How many animals in the amazon rainforest are endangered?

Over 150 types of animals in the Amazon rainforest are endangered. One of them is the jaguar, black caiman, Amazon River dolphin, poison dart frog, etc.

3. What are some abiotic factors in the amazon rainforest?

Some abiotic factors in the Amazon rainforest are temperature, humidity, soil type, and rainfall. They are the natural elements or nonliving things of the environment.

4. How many animals are in the Amazon River

About 3000 species of animals are present in the Amazon River.

5. What are 5 abiotic factors in the amazon rainforest?

Temperature, precipitation, soil, sunlight, and topography are the 5 abiotic factors in the amazon rainforest.

6. What abiotic factors live in the amazon rainforest?

Abiotic factors are the non-living things in the amazon rainforest. Temperature, types of, soil types, amount of sunlight, and topography are the abiotic factors living in the amazon rainforest

Short summary in 15 words

The Amazon rainforest is one of the most biodiverse regions with a wide variety of plant and animal species. They are the biotic factors of this rainforest. About 30% of the world’s species are present in the Amazon rainforest.

Written By: Manisha Bharati

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