Metal and non-metal on the periodic table

metals vs. non metals

Introduction

The periodic table contains a total of 118 elements so far. All of these elements are broadly classified as metal and non-metal on the periodic table. Besides these, there is another section of elements called as a metalloid. More than 75% at the left and middle part of the periodic table are metal. The elements on the right side of the periodic table are non-metals. From the sophisticated electronic devices, the study of metals has gained a lot of importance in daily life and their wide use. The metal and non-metal on the periodic table are discussed below (1) & (3).

Metals definition, examples and properties

Definition of metals

Metals are those elements that are hard,  strong in nature. These are capable of bright, shiny, and light reflection. Also relatively heavy at a weight and produces metallic sound when hit. When reacts it usually produces alkaline oxides (3).

Examples of metals

Some of the examples of metals are silver, copper, gold, platinum, zinc, iron, aluminum, mercury, lead, magnesium, etc. All these metals are solid, except mercury which is liquid (3).

Physical properties of metals

1. Hardness

Most of the metals in the periodic table are hard, except sodium, potassium, lithium, etc. This metal is alkali metal. These metals are very soft and can be cut with a knife.

2. Malleability

Malleability is an important characteristic of metals. Most of the metals are malleable. That is, metals can be beaten into thin sheets with a hammer. Because of the property, iron is used in making big ships.

3. Strength

Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Some of the metals are not strong. Such as sodium, potassium, etc.

4. Ductility

It is another important property of metals. Metals are ductile. It can be drawn into wires. But all the metals are not equally ductile. Some metals are more ductile than others. Copper and aluminum metals are very ductile. Iron, magnesium is also quite ductile. Gold is the most ductile metal.

5. Density

Metals have high density and are very heavy. Iridium and osmium have the highest density and lithium have the lowest density.

6. Conduction

Metals have good conduction of heat and electricity. So the reason electric wires are made of metals like copper and aluminum.

7. Melting and boiling

Metals have high melting points and boiling points. Tungsten has the highest melting point and silver has a low boiling point.

8. Lustre

Metals have the quality of reflecting light from its surface. The property of metal of having a shining surface is called “metallic luster”. The shiny appearance of metals makes them useful in making jewelry.

9. Physical state

Metals are solid at room temperature, except mercury.  Most of the metals like iron, copper, aluminum, silver, etc. are solids at room temperature. Mercury is liquid at room temperature (1) & (3).

Chemical properties of metals

1. The reaction of metals with oxygen:

The metal oxide is formed on the reaction of metals with oxygen.

Examples:

a. Sodium forms sodium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

4Na     +   O₂        →      2Na₂O

Sodium   oxygen        sodium oxide

Lithium, potassium, sodium, etc. are known as alkali- metals. These metals react with oxygen.

b. Potassium forms potassium oxide when it reacts with oxygen.

4K   +   O₂       →    2K₂O

Potassium      oxygen     potassium oxide

Silver, gold, and platinum do not combine with the oxygen of air even at high temperatures.

2. The reaction of metals with water:

Metals form hydroxide and hydrogen gas when it reacts with water.

Examples:

a. Sodium forms sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas along with a lot of heat when reacting with water.

Na      +   H₂O   →   NaOH         +          H₂

Sodium   water   sodium hydroxide    hydrogen

b. Calcium forms calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas when it reacts with water.

Ca   +   2H₂O    →    Ca(OH)₂    +     H₂

Calcium   water        calcium oxide   hydrogen

c. Magnesium reacts with water and forms magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

Mg       +   H₂O   →   Mg(OH)₂        +       H2

Magnesium   water     magnesium oxide   hydrogen

Other metals do not react with water or very slowly reacts. Copper, silver, gold do not react with steam.

3. The reaction of metals with dilute acid:

When metals react with dilute acid then metal salt and hydrogen gas are formed.

Example:

a. Zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.

ZN        +         2HCL           →        ZnCl₂          +    H₂

Zinc      hydrochloric acid         zinc chloride    hydrogen

b. Magnesium chloride and hydrogen are formed when magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Mg     +         2HCL            →           MgCl₂        +              H₂

Magnesium   hydrochloric acid    magnesium chloride    hydrogen

4. The reaction of metals with salt salutations:

Displacement reaction is the reaction of metals with other metallic salt solutions.  In this reaction, more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal from its salt.

Example:

a. Iron reacts with copper sulfate solution and formed iron sulfate and copper.

Fe    +      CuSO₄       →      FeSO₄       +      Cu

Iron    copper sulfate iron sulfate copper

b. Aluminum and zinc displace copper from the solution of copper sulfate.

2Al       +        3CuSO₄      →          Al₂(SO₄)₃         +   3Cu

Aluminum copper sulfate aluminum sulfate copper

Zn +    CuSO₄        →         ZnSO₄+ Cu   +   Cu

Zinc    copper sulfate     zinc sulfate copper

In all the above examples, iron, aluminum, and zinc are more reactive than copper. This is why they displace copper from its salt solution.

5. The reaction of metals with chlorine

Metals react with chlorine and form ionic chlorides. Metal chlorides have high melting points and boiling points. So, metal chlorides are non-volatile.

Example:

a. Sodium is a metal. It reacts on chlorine and formed an ionic chloride called sodium chloride.

2Na   +    Cl₂       →      2NaCl

Sodium    chlorine     sodium chloride

b. Magnesium on heating with chlorine readily forms magnesium chloride. It is an ionic chloride.

Mg       +        Cl₂        →       MgCl₂

Magnesium   chloride       magnesium chloride

6. The reaction of metals with hydrogen

Most of the metals do not combine with hydrogen. Only a few reactive metals like sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium react with hydrogen to form metal hydrides. In a metal hydride, hydrogen is present in the form of a negative ion called hydride ion.

Example:

When hydrogen gas reacts with sodium, then sodium hydride is formed.

2Na       +     H₂       →       2NaH

Sodium     Hydrogen      Sodium hydride

Hydrogen gas reacts with calcium and formed calcium hydride

Ca        +      H₂        →      CaH₂

Calcium hydrogen calcium hydride (1) & (3).

Use of metal

In daily life, metals are used in various fields. Such as:

  1. Mercury is used in thermometer to check the temperature.
  2. Aluminum, steel is used as utensils.
  3. Gold, silver, platinum are used for jewelry and ornaments.
  4. Copper is used for making cable wires.
  5. Iron is used in automobiles.
  6. Iron and steel are used for construction purposes (3).

Non- metal definition, examples and properties

Definition of non-metals

In chemistry, non-metals are the elements that have three properties of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) that are seen, which is neither bright nor shiny, cannot reflect light, lightweight, cannot conduct heat and electricity (3).

Examples of non-metals

Hydrogen, carbon, chlorine, nitrogen, bromine, neon, argon, sulfur, silicon, phosphorous, etc. are non-metals (3).

Physical properties of non-metals

1. Hardness

Most of the non-metals are generally soft. Sulfur and phosphorus are solid non-metals are quite soft. But one non-metal carbon (in the form of the diamond) is very hard.

2. Conduction

Non-metals cannot conduct heat and electricity. But some non-metals can conduct heat and electricity. For example, graphite and carbon non-metals can conduct heat and electricity.

3. Melting and boiling

Non-metals have low melting points and boiling points. But one non-metals has high melting and boiling point. Diamond has high melting points and boiling points. The melting point of the diamond is, however, more than 3500°C, which is very high.

4. Lustre

Non-metals do not have luster. It means non-metals do not have a shining surface. The non-metals are dull. For example, sulfur and phosphorus have not lustered. That is they do not have a shining surface. But iodine is a non-metal, which has a shining surface.

5. Density

Non-metals have low densities that are non-metals are light substances. Sulfur has a low density.

6. Ductility and malleability

Non-metals are neither malleable nor ductile. Non-metals are brittle, which means that non-metals break into pieces when hammered or stretched. For example, sulfur and phosphorus are solid non-metals that are non-malleable and non-ductile. But carbon is also a non-metal which is brittle.

7. Sonority

Non-metals are non-sonorous. They do not produce sound when they are hit by other objects.

8. Physical state

Non-metals are solids, liquids, and gases at room temperature. It can exist in all three physical states. These are solids, liquids, and gases. Sulfur, phosphorus, are solid non-metals, bromine is liquid non-metal and hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, etc. are gases non-metal.

9. Strong

Non-metals are not strong. They are easily broken.  Graphite is not strong and it has low strength.

10. Colour

Non-metals have many different colors. For example sulfur is yellow, phosphorus is red, graphite is black, and hydrogen and oxygen are colorless (2) & (3).

Chemical properties of non-metals

1. The reaction of non-metals with oxygen:

When non-metals react with oxygen it forms oxide.

Examples:

When carbon reacts with oxygen, carbon dioxide is formed along with the production of heat.

C     +    O₂     →      CO₂   +       Heat

Carbon   oxygen-carbon dioxide

Sulfur gives sulfur dioxide when reacting with oxygen. Sulfur catches fire when exposed to air.

S     +    O₂      →       SO₂

Sulfur oxygen sulfur dioxide

2. The reaction of non-metals with water:

Non-metals do not react with water to evolve hydrogen gas. This is because non-metals cannot give electrons to reduce the hydrogen ions of water into hydrogen gas.

3. The reaction of non-metals with dilute acid:

Non-metals do not react with dilute acids.

4. The reaction of non-metals with salt salutations:

A more reactive non-metal displaces a less reactive non-metal from its salt salutation.

  • When chlorine reacts with a solution of sodium bromide, then sodium chloride and bromine are formed

2NaBr        +          Cl₂        →      2NaCl       +         Br₂

Sodium bromide   chlorine     sodium chloride   bromine

5. The reaction of non-metals with chlorine:

Non-metals react with chlorine and formed chloride.

  • Hydrogen is a non-metal. When it reacts with chlorine then it formed chloride, called hydrogen chloride.

H₂     +       Cl₂       →     2HCl

Hydrogen   chloride     hydrogen chloride

6. The reaction of non-metals with hydrogen:

Non-metal reacts with hydrogen and formed hydrides.

  • Sulfur is a non-metal which combines with hydrogen to form a covalent hydride called hydrogen sulfide.

H₂      +      S        →       H₂S

Hydrogen sulfur hydrogen sulfide (3).

Use of non-metal

  1. Oxygen is a non-metal.
  2. Chlorine is used for purifying water.
  3. Nitrogen is used by plants.
  4. Graphite is used in making leads
  5. Carbon is used as a fuel.
  6. Diamond is used in industries for cutting glass.
  7. Neon, argon is used in different types of lights (2).

Metalloids definition, examples and properties

Definition of metalloids

In chemistry, an element which exhibits the property of both metals and non-metals is called metalloid (3).

Examples of metalloids

Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium are metalloids. (3).

Physical Properties of metalloids

1. Physical state

Metalloids are solid at room temperature.

2. Lustre

Metalloids can be shiny or dull.

3. Conduction

Metalloids have low conduction of heat and electricity. That is metalloids are semiconductors.

4. Ductility and malleability

Metalloids are neither malleable nor ductile. Metalloids are brittle, which means that non-metals break into pieces when hammered or stretched.

5. Melting and boiling

It has a melting and boiling point.

6. Density

As compare to metals, metalloids have low density (3) & (5).

Use of metalloids

  1. Boron carbide is further used pressure molding bulletproof jackets.
  2. Silicon has semi conduction properties. So silicon is used in an application in the computer chips.
  3. It is used in the form of boric acid and can be used as a cleaning agent.
  4. Germanium is used in semiconductor industries to improve the conductive properties.
  5. Antimony is used as one of the ingredients in paints and ceramic enamels. In ancient times, Egyptians used antimony as a cosmetic.

Difference between metal, non-metal, and metalloids (1) & (3).

Properties Metal Non-metal Metalloid
1.     Physical state Metals are solid in room temperature Non-metals are solid, liquids, and gases at room temperature. Metalloids are solid at room temperature.

 

2.     Density Metals have high density and are very heavy. Non-metals have low densities that are non-metals are light substances. As compare to metals, metalloids have low density.

 

3.     Heat conduction Metals have good conduction of heat. Non-metals cannot conduct heat. Metalloids have low conduction of heat.
4.     Luster Metals have the quality of reflecting light from its surface. Non-metals do not have luster. It means non-metals do not have a shining surface. The non-metals are dull. Metalloids can be shiny or dull.
5.     Electricity conduction Metals have good conduction of electricity. Non-metals cannot conduct electricity. Metalloids have low conduction of electricity.
6.     Melting and boiling point Metals have high melting points and boiling points.  Most of the non-metals have low melting points and boiling points. It has a melting and boiling point.
7.     Ductility It is another important property of metals. Metals are ductile. It can be drawn into wires. Non-metals are not ductile. Metalloids are also not ductile.
8.     Malleability Malleability is an important characteristic of metals. Most of the metals are malleable. That is, metals can be beaten into thin sheets with a hammer. Non-metals are not malleable. Non-metals are brittle, which means that non-metals break into pieces when hammered or stretched. Metalloids are not malleable. Metalloids are brittle, which means that non-metals break into pieces when hammered or stretched.

 

9.     Oxide- water interaction It forms base when reacts with oxide-water It forms acid These compounds can form both base and acid.
10.  Nature of oxides

 

 Metal formed basic oxide.  Non- metal formed acidic oxide. Metalloids formed acidic oxide.
11.  Ionic tendency  Form cations Form anions Can form both

Metal and non-metal on the periodic table

In 1829, German scientist Dobereiner first tried to decipher the origin of a few atoms with the atomic mass and similarity between their religions. This is called the Law of Triads.  In 1864 another scientist Newland is also tried to decode the origin of a few atoms with the atomic mass and similarity between their religions. Russian scientist Mendeleev in 1869 has arranged elements incrementally according to the atomic mass, which is called Mendeleev’s periodic law. In the periodic table, metals are located on the left and middle part. The elements on the right side of the periodic table are nonmetals. And besides these, there is another section of elements called metalloid (4).

Metals and non-metals on the periodic table
By Dolgoruki.es – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=79660841

The periodic table of elements can be considered as a single document that reflects the behavior of elements in a simple and logical way. That means, it is possible to predict the nature and behavior of the metals and non- metals only knowing the location of metals and non-metals in the periodic table. In fact, the organization of metal and non-metal on the periodic table was a major advance in the history of chemistry. Elements that exhibit similar chemistry appear in vertical columns called groups (number 1-18 from left to right). In the periodic table, there are seven horizontal rows which are called periods. In the periodic table, elements can be broadly divided into metals, non-metals, and metalloids. Metals are located on the left side of the periodic table and non-metals are located on the upper right. They are separated by a diagonal band of metalloids. In the periodic table alkali metals (group 1) and alkali earth metals (group 2) on the far left, and the halogens (group 17) and the noble gases (group 18) on the far right (6) & (4).

Written By: Manish Bharati

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