Define region of maturation in roots

Define region of maturation in roots

Introduction

The region of maturation in roots is a zone present in a plant’s root. Root is the descending part of the main axis of the plant it not only helps in firmly attaching the palnt to the ground but also provides absorption of the right nutrients and allows for its full development. Therefore, it is one of the most important parts of the tree. It has a primary root. From this primary root, many small roots come out known as secondary roots.

All roots develop from the radical of the seeds. The primary root generated directly from the radicals of the seed. Sometimes, these roots also develop from the base of the stem, branches, leaves, etc.

The roots have four regions in which region of maturation is one of them. Although there are no clear boundary lines among these regions, still they can be easily identified. This region of maturation roots is described below (2) & (1).

Define region of maturation

There is a region of plant roots where newly grown roots become mature and elongated. This region of roots is known as the region of maturation. This region of roots is adjacent to the elongation zone. It is an area in all plant roots where the cells are produced and develop into different types of cells. This zone is also known as differentiation or root-hair zone (3).

Location

The region of maturation located just above the elongation region. It is the first region of the roots. The zone which is situated at the top of the roots is the maturation zone. Plant cells in the region of elongation travel to this region when they are elongated and mature (1).

Characteristics

  • It has epidermal cells.
  • Lateral roots are grown in the upper part of the maturation zone.
  • Its cells exhibit maturation and differentiation in various tissues.
  • The lower part of the region of maturation produces the root hair.
  • The root hairs produced in this region of the roots absorb water and minerals from the soil.
  • All cells in the region of maturation are single cells.
  • Cells in this region mature into a variety of primary tissue.
  • Root hairs in this region are extensions of the epidermis that increase the surface area and help absorb water and soil nutrients.
  • It extends approximately 1 to 6 cm behind the root.
  • Root hair present in the non-elongating zone of the roots during maturation (2) & (4).

Anatomy of maturation region    

The region of maturation synthesis individual cells, such as xylem, cortex, endodermis, phloem, etc. A particular root hair lives here for only a day or two. When old root hairs die in the upper part of the region, new root hairs are formed.

This zone of roots describes the secondary xylem and secondary phloem. Many epidermis cells are present here. Minerals from the epidermis are transferred to the vascular tissue by the cortex. The cortex is the inner tissue of the epidermis.

Here cylindrical cells form the endodermis. On the other hand, lateral roots begin to grow. The root hairs are formed in this region. That is why this region is often called the root hair region. These root hairs increase the surface area of absorption. This region can be easily identified due to the presence of this root hair (3) & (5).

Root hair in the maturation zone

Root hairs are mainly found in the maturation zone. It is so long and connects with the soil. The primary function of this root’s hair is to absorb water and minerals from the soil. The root hairs grow at a much faster rate at the base of the roots. But they do not last long. These root hairs are about 15 to 17 micrometers in diameter. The growth of root hairs occurs rapidly. Root hairs formed from epidermal cells (1) & (5).

Function

The region of maturation is the important zone of the roots. It is located near the top of the root. There are certain functions in this region of roots that are discussed below.

1. There are many root hairs present in this region. These root hairs are used to absorb water and minerals from the soil. They also increase the surface area of this zone. The plant is firmly attached to the ground by root hairs.

2. The required feature of the maturation zone is acid secretion. The plants secrete acids. These acids are present in the soil from the fine root hairs present in the maturation region.

3. Various minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, sulfur, potassium, zinc, copper, etc. are absorbed from the soil through the root hairs located from the region of maturation.

4. Cell separation occurs in the maturation zone. In this zone, the cells take on an identity about what functions they will perform in the plant root. The cells turn into parenchyma cells to store and transfer nutrients.

5. Many times the cells can turn into sclerenchyma cells. This cell separation occurs according to the amount of the maturation of the cell and the amount of the division of the cell.

6. The root hairs in the maturation zone are long. So they can enter the soil particles and prevent harmful bacteria from entering the plant through the xylem vessels.

7. The growing areas of the root surface in this region absorb plant nutrients. They also help to be more efficient in establishing relationships with the microorganisms (2) & (3).

Q&A

1. What happens in the zone of cell maturation?

  • Plant cells complete their separation and become individual cell types.
  • The cells become elongated and mature.

2. What are the major regions of plant growth?

Plant growth zones are the apical regions of roots and shoots where plant growth is limited to the meristematic region. Such growing regions are apical meristems, primary meristems, or regions of primary growth.

3. What are the four regions of root?

All the roots consist of four regions. These regions are

  1. Root cap
  2. Region of cell division
  3. Region of elongation
  4. Region of maturation.

4. What are the different root zones?

The root is the descending axis of the plant and develops from the radicle. There are four regions of roots. Such as-

  1. Region of maturation
  2. Region of elongation
  3. Region of cell division
  4. Region of the Root cap.

Written By: Manisha Bharati

Reference

1. B Agarwal and V. K. Agarwal. Unified Botany, B.Sc. second Year. Shiva Lal Agarwal & Company Publications, Indore. Chapter: modification of root for various functions and interaction of root with microbes. Page no: 45 to 46.

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