Hormonal proteins structure and functions

Hormonal proteins

Introduction Protein is a complex nitrogenous complex with a high molecular mass that is a polymer of amino acids. This macromolecule is considered to be the main component of all life. It is not possible to imagine the existence of any animal without protein. All proteins are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There … Read more

N-terminus and C-terminus in protein

N terminus and c terminus in protein

Introduction The Carboxyl group (-COOH) of one amino acid is attached to the amino group of another amino acid by a covalent bond called a peptide bond. When a peptide bond forms a water molecule is eliminated. Each amino acid unit in the peptide is known as the residue. All peptides have two ends, amino-terminal … Read more

What is a pentose sugar?

pentose sugar

Introduction Pentose sugar is a component of nucleotides. Nucleotides are biological molecules that act as monomers and as subunits of DNA and RNA. These biological molecules carry energy packets to the cell in the form of nucleoside triphosphate (ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP), which play a key role in metabolic processes. Nucleotides are formed by … Read more

Biotic components of Grassland ecosystem

Biotic components of Grassland ecosystem

Introduction Biotic components of the grassland ecosystem refer to the various biological ingredients of the grassland ecosystem. They are the living parts of an ecosystem comprising plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms. An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact among themselves and also with their surrounding physical environment. It is an … Read more

Krebs cycle: definitions, features and stages

Krebs cycle

Introduction The body constantly needs energy to control various biological functions. The organism consumes food to gain this energy. The static energy in food that is stored from solar energy through the process of photosynthesis is converted into kinetic energy through a biochemical process of respiration. The organism performs physiological functions such as food intake, … Read more

What is Ribose 5-phosphate its structure and formation

Ribose 5-phosphate

Introduction Ribose 5-phosphate is a product produced in the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. The sequence of steps of enzymatic reactions where a precursor is converted into a product through a series of metabolic intermediates is known as the metabolic pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is also a metabolic pathway. It is the … Read more

Cell membrane of prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell

Cell membrane of prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell

Introduction All organisms are made up of tiny billions of cells that cannot be seen with the naked eye. In 1665 scientist Robert Hooke first discovered the cell. The cells are arranged one on top of the other to form organisms. The size of a cell is about 0.1 micrometers to 100 micrometers. The unicellular … Read more

Decomposers in grassland: Role and types

Decomposers in grassland

Introduction Decomposers in grassland refer to the microorganisms of the grassland region that decomposed the animal’s and plant’s bodies. Grassland is an area where different types of plants, animals, and microorganisms live and they are related to each other. All the animals present in grassland depend on plants for food. Decomposers depend on the carcasses … Read more

What is the distinction between habitat and environment?

habitat and environment

Introduction Everything which surrounds us may be referred to as the environment. Habitat is the natural home or environment of a plant, animal, or another organism. It is a specific space located in the environment, therefore they are interrelated. Here is a discussion of what is the distinction between habitat and environment. Habitat and environment … Read more

Evolution of Earth’s atmosphere

Evolution of earth’s atmosphere

Introduction Earth is the only planet in the solar system that has a life, this is because of the earth’s unique atmosphere. The evolution of the earth’s atmosphere did not happen suddenly, it takes place through various processes and the present atmosphere has been created. Life has not yet been found among the other planets … Read more